China loaned $3 Billion for Oil, Roads, and Agriculture (Tranche A and B) to Ghana (linked to #28056 and #36236))

Project ID:
2034
Project Description:

On December 8, 2009, the China Development Bank (CDB) agreed to provide Ghana with a loan of 3 billion USD for a package of projects, the majority of which are related to infrastructural development. The loan was signed by CDB and Ghana on December 16, 2011. In February 2012, the Ghanaian parliament approved the agreement at the recommendation of the deputy speaker of parliament, Edward Doe Adjaho. This loan is part of 13 billion USD in agreements signed September, 2010 between Ghana and the China Development Bank and China Exim Bank that aimed to develop infrastructure, including in the oil and gas sector. According to Ghanaian government officials' projections of oil prices, Ghana will end up paying 6.4 billion USD to China for the 3 billion USD loan or will give away 750 million barrels of the nation's crude oil to a Chinese company for more than 15 years. The loan agreement stipulates that 60% of all contracts under the loan go to Chinese companies. The mega-loan is split evenly between two sections called Tranche A and Tranche B. The first tranche includes 1.5 billion USD at 15 year repayment with a 5 year grace period; the interest rate is LIBOR plus 2.95%. There is an upfront fee of 0.25% of the loan and a commitment fee of 1% per year on the undrawn and un-cancelled balance of the loan. Tranche B has a 10 year repayment period with 3 year grace period; the interest rate is LIBOR plus 2.85%. The money will be available for six years after the agreement was signed. Principal and interest payments will be made to CDB every six months after the grace periods. There are 12 eligible projects that the loan might cover, each detailed below: 1. Western Corridor Infrastructure Renewal Project - Takoradi-Kumasi; Dunkwa-Awaso Railway Line Scenario 1 Retrofit (Estimated Allocation of 450-500 million USD) 2. Western Corridor Infrastructure Renewal Project - Takoradi Port Retrofit Phase 1 (Estimated Allocation of 150-200 million USD) 3. Sekondi Free Zone Project - Shared infrastructure and utility services (Estimated Amount of 100 million USD) 4. Accra Plains Irrigation Project (Phase 1: 5000 ha) (Estimated Amount 100 million USD) 5. Coastal Fishing Harbors and Landing Sites Re-development Project - Axim, Dixcove, Elmina, Winneba, Mumford, Senya-Beraku, Jamestown, Teshie, Tema, Ada, Keta (Estimated Amount of 150-250 million USD), 6. Eastern Corridor Multi-modal Transportation Project - Upgrade of Volta Lake Ferries, Pontoons and Landing Sites - Kpandu-Amankwakrom, Kete Krachi-Kwadokrom, Yeji-Makongo, Tapa Aboatoase, Dzemini; Upgrade of Akosombo and Buipe Ports (Estimated Amount of 150-500 million USD), To this end, engineers are currently working to replace the old engines on the existing ferries with the new eight main and auxiliary engines procured under the World Bank Credit facility. This will improve ferry services across the Volta Lake. Under the CDB facility, an amount of 450 million USD has been allocated to the Eastern Corridor Multi-Modal Transport Project (ECMMTP) comprising: äó¢ upgrading and developing Akosombo and Buipe ports infrastructure; äó¢ upgrading and procuring vessels, other marine works and äó¢ upgrading 700km of feeder roads to selected ferry stations on the Volta Lake' 7. Western Corridor Gas Infrastructure Project - Offshore gas gathering pipeline, early phase gas processing plant, onshore gas trunk pipeline (Pumpuni Dispatch Terminal), NGLs Processing Retrofit (Tema Oil Refinery), Helicopter Surveillance Fleet. IN IMPLEMENTATION. - This project already had submitted a subsidiary agreement to Parliament for approval. - Includes Gas Processing Plant of 150 million standard cubic feet, a 36km shallow water offshore pipeline from the FPSO to the Plant, a 120km onshore pipeline from the gas processing plant to Aboadze, a 75Œ_km onshore pipeline from Esiama to Prestea, a jetty for the export of natural gas liquids, and an operations and control office complex. - As of June 2013, the contractor Sinopec had been pre-financing this project, and the Government of Ghana was seeking additional bridge financing. 8. Western Corridor Petroleum Terminal Project 9. Western Corridor Oil Enclave Toll Road Project 10. Accra Metropolitan Area ICT - Enhanced Traffic Management Project (road completion components) 11. Integrated National Security Communications Enhancement Project - Deployment of ICT Enhanced Surveillance Platform for Western Corridor Oil Enclave (Estimated amount of 150 million USD) 12. SME Projects Incubation Facility - Facility Management Contracts with local financial institutions (Estimated amount of 100 million USD) Each project carries with it a necessary subsidiary agreement that must be signed by the MoFEP and CDB before money will be disbursed. No more than 5 of these agreements can be submitted per year. The CDB will provide financing for 85% of total project costs and the government of Ghana will finance the remaining 15%, according to the framework agreement signed between Iiang Chaoliang, President of the China Development Bank Corporation, and Fifi Kwetey, Ghana's Deputy Finance Minister, on September 20, 2010. There is some discrepancy among sources for this project; several sources state that China agreed to provide 2.85 billion USD loan to fund a road improvement project. Although some of the sub-projects listed could involve some road infrastructure, the accepted list does not include a majority of road projects. As of June 2013, CDB had disbursed about 200 million USD for the agreement. Ghanaian Parliament amended the agreement as it conflicted with provisions in the Petroleum Revenue Management Act of 2011, which stalled disbursement into the Master Loan Facility. In February 2014, official from China Development Bank arrived in Ghana to renegotiate the terms of the loan. Although the exact nature of this renegotiation remains unclear, it has been reported that CDB was asking for an additional 2,000 barrels of oil per day beyond the original 13,000. This change captures the on-going downward pressure on international oil prices. In a 2014 paper by Deborah Brautigam and Kevin Gallagher, this is listed as an oil-backed loan amounting to 3 billion USD - the loan is divided into two different entries, which mirrors the division of the project into Tranche A and Tranche B. In 2014, it is reported that Tranche B was cancelled due to disagreements between two governments. STAFF_NOTE: See Appendix C of this report for subnational location information: https://cddrl.fsi.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/ghana_loan_case.pdf

Project Details

Official Citation

For academic purposes: Dreher, A., Fuchs, A., Parks, B.C., Strange, A. M., & Tierney, M. J. (2017). Aid, China, and Growth: Evidence from a New Global Development Finance Dataset. AidData Working Paper #46. Williamsburg, VA: AidData.

For other (non-academic) purposes: AidData. 2017. Global Chinese Official Finance Dataset, Version 1.0. Retrieved from http://aiddata.org/data/chinese-global-official-finance-dataset.

Documentation

All fields in the dataset are listed below. Descriptions of each field are taken dataset's Readme file. You can download this file along with the whole dataset at aiddata.org/data/chinese-global-official-finance-dataset

About This Record

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  • project_id

    2034

    Field Definition

    From the dataset Readme

    Unique identification number assigned to every project in the dataset. Within the dynamic, online version of the dataset (at china.aiddata.org), projects can be accessed with their unique identification numbers by using the “Access project by ID” function.

  • title

    China loaned $3 Billion for Oil, Roads, and Agriculture (Tranche A and B) to Ghana (linked to #28056 and #36236))

    Field Definition

    From the dataset Readme

    Short phrase describing the nature of a given project

  • description

    On December 8, 2009, the China Development Bank (CDB) agreed to provide Ghana with a loan of 3 billion USD for a package of projects, the majority of which are related to infrastructural development. The loan was signed by CDB and Ghana on December 16, 2011. In February 2012, the Ghanaian parliament approved the agreement at the recommendation of the deputy speaker of parliament, Edward Doe Adjaho. This loan is part of 13 billion USD in agreements signed September, 2010 between Ghana and the China Development Bank and China Exim Bank that aimed to develop infrastructure, including in the oil and gas sector. According to Ghanaian government officials' projections of oil prices, Ghana will end up paying 6.4 billion USD to China for the 3 billion USD loan or will give away 750 million barrels of the nation's crude oil to a Chinese company for more than 15 years. The loan agreement stipulates that 60% of all contracts under the loan go to Chinese companies. The mega-loan is split evenly between two sections called Tranche A and Tranche B. The first tranche includes 1.5 billion USD at 15 year repayment with a 5 year grace period; the interest rate is LIBOR plus 2.95%. There is an upfront fee of 0.25% of the loan and a commitment fee of 1% per year on the undrawn and un-cancelled balance of the loan. Tranche B has a 10 year repayment period with 3 year grace period; the interest rate is LIBOR plus 2.85%. The money will be available for six years after the agreement was signed. Principal and interest payments will be made to CDB every six months after the grace periods. There are 12 eligible projects that the loan might cover, each detailed below: 1. Western Corridor Infrastructure Renewal Project - Takoradi-Kumasi; Dunkwa-Awaso Railway Line Scenario 1 Retrofit (Estimated Allocation of 450-500 million USD) 2. Western Corridor Infrastructure Renewal Project - Takoradi Port Retrofit Phase 1 (Estimated Allocation of 150-200 million USD) 3. Sekondi Free Zone Project - Shared infrastructure and utility services (Estimated Amount of 100 million USD) 4. Accra Plains Irrigation Project (Phase 1: 5000 ha) (Estimated Amount 100 million USD) 5. Coastal Fishing Harbors and Landing Sites Re-development Project - Axim, Dixcove, Elmina, Winneba, Mumford, Senya-Beraku, Jamestown, Teshie, Tema, Ada, Keta (Estimated Amount of 150-250 million USD), 6. Eastern Corridor Multi-modal Transportation Project - Upgrade of Volta Lake Ferries, Pontoons and Landing Sites - Kpandu-Amankwakrom, Kete Krachi-Kwadokrom, Yeji-Makongo, Tapa Aboatoase, Dzemini; Upgrade of Akosombo and Buipe Ports (Estimated Amount of 150-500 million USD), To this end, engineers are currently working to replace the old engines on the existing ferries with the new eight main and auxiliary engines procured under the World Bank Credit facility. This will improve ferry services across the Volta Lake. Under the CDB facility, an amount of 450 million USD has been allocated to the Eastern Corridor Multi-Modal Transport Project (ECMMTP) comprising: äó¢ upgrading and developing Akosombo and Buipe ports infrastructure; äó¢ upgrading and procuring vessels, other marine works and äó¢ upgrading 700km of feeder roads to selected ferry stations on the Volta Lake' 7. Western Corridor Gas Infrastructure Project - Offshore gas gathering pipeline, early phase gas processing plant, onshore gas trunk pipeline (Pumpuni Dispatch Terminal), NGLs Processing Retrofit (Tema Oil Refinery), Helicopter Surveillance Fleet. IN IMPLEMENTATION. - This project already had submitted a subsidiary agreement to Parliament for approval. - Includes Gas Processing Plant of 150 million standard cubic feet, a 36km shallow water offshore pipeline from the FPSO to the Plant, a 120km onshore pipeline from the gas processing plant to Aboadze, a 75Œ_km onshore pipeline from Esiama to Prestea, a jetty for the export of natural gas liquids, and an operations and control office complex. - As of June 2013, the contractor Sinopec had been pre-financing this project, and the Government of Ghana was seeking additional bridge financing. 8. Western Corridor Petroleum Terminal Project 9. Western Corridor Oil Enclave Toll Road Project 10. Accra Metropolitan Area ICT - Enhanced Traffic Management Project (road completion components) 11. Integrated National Security Communications Enhancement Project - Deployment of ICT Enhanced Surveillance Platform for Western Corridor Oil Enclave (Estimated amount of 150 million USD) 12. SME Projects Incubation Facility - Facility Management Contracts with local financial institutions (Estimated amount of 100 million USD) Each project carries with it a necessary subsidiary agreement that must be signed by the MoFEP and CDB before money will be disbursed. No more than 5 of these agreements can be submitted per year. The CDB will provide financing for 85% of total project costs and the government of Ghana will finance the remaining 15%, according to the framework agreement signed between Iiang Chaoliang, President of the China Development Bank Corporation, and Fifi Kwetey, Ghana's Deputy Finance Minister, on September 20, 2010. There is some discrepancy among sources for this project; several sources state that China agreed to provide 2.85 billion USD loan to fund a road improvement project. Although some of the sub-projects listed could involve some road infrastructure, the accepted list does not include a majority of road projects. As of June 2013, CDB had disbursed about 200 million USD for the agreement. Ghanaian Parliament amended the agreement as it conflicted with provisions in the Petroleum Revenue Management Act of 2011, which stalled disbursement into the Master Loan Facility. In February 2014, official from China Development Bank arrived in Ghana to renegotiate the terms of the loan. Although the exact nature of this renegotiation remains unclear, it has been reported that CDB was asking for an additional 2,000 barrels of oil per day beyond the original 13,000. This change captures the on-going downward pressure on international oil prices. In a 2014 paper by Deborah Brautigam and Kevin Gallagher, this is listed as an oil-backed loan amounting to 3 billion USD - the loan is divided into two different entries, which mirrors the division of the project into Tranche A and Tranche B. In 2014, it is reported that Tranche B was cancelled due to disagreements between two governments. STAFF_NOTE: See Appendix C of this report for subnational location information: https://cddrl.fsi.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/ghana_loan_case.pdf

    Field Definition

    From the dataset Readme

    1-2 paragraph comprehensive summary of the activities supported by the project. See page 15 of the methodology for a detailed explanation of how this variable is recorded.

  • status

    Completion

    Field Definition

    From the dataset Readme

    Tracks the progression of a project. Labels include: Pipeline: Pledge, Pipeline: Commitment, Implementation, Completed, Suspended, Cancelled.

  • recommended_for_research

    FALSE

    Field Definition

    From the dataset Readme

    This field identifies projects that AidData recommends including for normal research & financial analysis. It is equal to "TRUE" for all projects except for those that are marked as umbrella projects, pledges, cancelled, or suspended projects. We recommend excluding the projects marked "FALSE" because the umbrella projects and projects with a status of pledged, cancelled, or suspended likely represent double counting or would lead to including flows that were never fully committed/implemented. This field is meant to make it easier for users to clearly identify the set of projects that we recommend using to better understand the volume and composition of Chinese Official Finance.

  • umbrella

    1

    Field Definition

    From the dataset Readme

    This field identifies projects where some agreement was signed between two countries but the funds were not allocated at the original agreement date, only to be allocated through smaller projects later on. Given the nature of TUFF data collection, it is likely that the smaller projects that relate to these umbrella projects were captured elsewhere in the dataset. To avoid double counting, we suggest users do not include records that are marked as umbrella projects in financial analysis. All general lines of credit are also marked as umbrella projects.

  • is_ground_truthing

    FALSE

    Field Definition

    From the dataset Readme

    A binary marker that indicates when a project has been verified with in-country field research.

  • donor

    China

    Field Definition

    From the dataset Readme

    Entity providing assistance to recipient country. This can be a sovereign state or multilateral organization providing assistance to a recipient country. For this dataset, the donor will always be China.

  • funding_agency

    China Development Bank (CDB), Government Agency; Export-Import Bank of China, Government Agency

    Field Definition

    From the dataset Readme

    Donor agency that provided the funding.

  • implementing_agency

    China Petroleum & Chemical Corporation (Sinopec Ltd.), State-Owned Company

    Field Definition

    From the dataset Readme

    Agency that implemented the project. Could be from the donor, recipient or other parties.

  • cofinancing_agency

    Field Definition

    From the dataset Readme

    Cofinancing agencies or other agencies involved in the project

Recipient

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  • recipient_condensed

    Ghana

    Field Definition

    From the dataset Readme

    Recipient country. If multiple countries were identified as recipients, this field identifies the smallest regional grouping that all specified countries belong to.

  • recipient_region

    Africa

    Field Definition

    From the dataset Readme

    Region of the recipient country.

  • location_details

    Field Definition

    From the dataset Readme

    The subnational locations where projects occurred.

  • recipient_agencies

    Field Definition

    From the dataset Readme

    Recipient agencies that are involved in the project.

  • recipient_agencies_count

    Field Definition

    From the dataset Readme

    Number of recipient agencies that are involved in the project.

  • all_recipients

    Ghana

    Field Definition

    From the dataset Readme

    The recipient entity or entities receiving official finance from a donor entity. A project record can have multiple recipients in cases where a donor entity is providing financing, goods or services to more than one country through a single project. This field provides a pipe-delimited list of all recipients specified as receiving official finance from a donor entity.

  • recipient_count

    1

    Field Definition

    From the dataset Readme

    number of recipient countries identified

  • amount

    1,500,000,000

    Field Definition

    From the dataset Readme

    Monetary amount pledged or committed by the donor entity for the completion of a project.

  • currency

    USD

    Field Definition

    From the dataset Readme

    Currency associated with the monetary amount for a project.

  • usd_defl_2014

    1,664,980,989

    Field Definition

    From the dataset Readme

    Deflated monetary equivalent of reported monetary amount in reported currency to 2014 U.S. Dollars

  • usd_current

    1,500,000,000

    Field Definition

    From the dataset Readme

    Nominal USD value of the amount specified for the project

  • deflators_used

    0.900911188

    Field Definition

    From the dataset Readme

    Deflator value calculated based on AidData methodology (which mimics OECD deflation methodology) using World Bank sources. Deflator is calculated using donor country inflation and change in buying power.

  • exchange_rates_used

    1

    Field Definition

    From the dataset Readme

    Exchange rate used to change the specified currency of the original amount into USD.

Flow Type

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  • flow

    Loan (excluding debt rescheduling)

    Field Definition

    From the dataset Readme

    Details on how financial flows, goods or services are transferred from the donor to recipient for a project. Flow types include: Debt Forgiveness, Debt Rescheduling, Export Credits, Foreign Direct Investment, Freestanding Technical Assistance, Grant, Loan, Joint Venture with Recipient, Scholarships/Training in Donor Country, and Strategic/Supplier Credit

  • flow_class

    OOF-like

    Field Definition

    From the dataset Readme

    Coders are also instructed to assign all projects to one of the following flow class categories: ODA-like, OOF-like, Vague (Official Finance), Official Investment, Official Religious Aid 1, and Official Religious Aid 2. More details on these flow categorizations can be found in Tuff Methodology 1.3 document. If the goal is to estimate Chinese Official Development Assistance in the strictest sense, include only projects with this field as ODA-like. However, if the goal is to estimate a more comprehensive measure of concessional and non-concessional Chinese Official Finance, then include ODA-like, OOF-like and Vague (Official Finance).

  • intent

    Mixed

    Field Definition

    From the dataset Readme

    Perceived intent of the finance provider. Categories covered by “donor intent” include: Development, Commercial, Representational, Mixed (encompassing any combination of the other three intents).

  • line_of_credit

    FALSE

    Field Definition

    From the dataset Readme

    Denotes a project or financial arrangement where the donor extended a line of credit to a recipient entity. This credit may or may not be used in its entirety by the recipient.

  • is_cofinanced

    FALSE

    Field Definition

    From the dataset Readme

    Denotes projects with multiple countries acting as donor (including the donor of investigation), where the financial amount provided by each donor separately could not distinguished.

  • loan_type

    Concessional

    Field Definition

    From the dataset Readme

    Represents the general nature of the loan. Categories covered include: interestfree; concessional; non-concessional; no information and some information.

  • interest_rate

    4.05

    %

    Field Definition

    From the dataset Readme

    Reported interest rate of the project loan, in percent

  • maturity

    15

    years

    Field Definition

    From the dataset Readme

    Reported duration of the project loan, in years

  • grace_period

    5

    years

    Field Definition

    From the dataset Readme

    Interval to first repayment of capital in years

  • grant_element

    36.08

    %

    Field Definition

    From the dataset Readme

    Grant element of the loan, in percent. Uses grant element reported by project sources, unless it can be calculated independently with the OECD grant element calculator (assumes 10 percent rate of discount, 2 payments per annum, and equity principal payment).

  • year

    2011

    Field Definition

    From the dataset Readme

    The year in which an agreement was reportedly made between a supplier of development finance and a recipient for a project. If available, the agreement year is the year of the formal signed commitment for a project; if commitment year is unavailable, or if a commitment has not been made, the year of the informal pledge is the agreement year for a project.

  • start_actual

    December 16, 2011

    Field Definition

    From the dataset Readme

    The actual date that the implementation of a project began on.

  • start_planned

    December 8, 2009

    Field Definition

    From the dataset Readme

    The announced start date for a project.

  • end_actual

    Field Definition

    From the dataset Readme

    The actual date that a project was completed on.

  • end_planned

    Field Definition

    From the dataset Readme

    The announced completion date for a project.

  • year_uncertain

    FALSE

    Field Definition

    From the dataset Readme

    Marker for projects without any sources reporting a specific pledge or commitment year. In these cases, the year of the earliest media report serves is coded as “agreement year.”

  • crs_sector_code

    430

    Field Definition

    From the dataset Readme

    3-digit sector classification based on OECD sector codes

  • crs_sector_name

    Other Multisector

    Field Definition

    From the dataset Readme

    Name of the 3-digit sector classification based on OECD sector codes

Source & Quality

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  • sources

    http://vibeghana.com/2010/09/22/ghana-gets-another-10-billion-chinese-loan/, Media Report, including Wikileaks; http://cn.reuters.com/article/chinaNews/idCNCHINA-1289520091209, Media Report, including Wikileaks; http://news.xinhuanet.com/world/2010-11/16/c_12779324.htm, Media Report, including Wikileaks; http://www.chinaafricarealstory.com/2010/11/ghanas-new-china-deals-whats-real-story.html, Other Academic (Working Paper, Dissertation); http://www.newstimeafrica.com/archives/25036, Media Report, including Wikileaks; http://www.modernghana.com/news/404269/1/china-development-bank-will-release-all-3-billion-.html, Media Report, including Wikileaks; http://global.factiva.com/aa/?ref=CM00000020110826e78q0003f&pp=1&fcpil=en&napc=S&sa_from=, Media Report, including Wikileaks; http://global.factiva.com/aa/?ref=AFNWS00020110830e78u000e9&pp=1&fcpil=en&napc=S&sa_from=, Media Report, including Wikileaks; http://global.factiva.com/aa/?ref=LBA0000020111219e7cg0016r&pp=1&fcpil=en&napc=S&sa_from=, Media Report, including Wikileaks; http://www.ghanatoghana.com/ghanas-1-2b-gas-infrastructure-to-be-relocated-from-bonyere-to-atuabo/, Media Report, including Wikileaks; http://www.htsc.com.cn/htnews/news.jsp?docId=15026842, Other Official Source (non-Donor, non-Recipient); http://www.douban.com/group/topic/15399706/, Social Media, including Unofficial Blogs; http://relooney.fatcow.com/SI_FAO-Africa-2012/Oxford-Ghana_4.pdf, Social Media, including Unofficial Blogs; http://www.reuters.com/article/2010/11/03/ghana-loan-roads-idAFLDE6A22DP20101103, Media Report, including Wikileaks; http://www.modernghana.com/news/349046/1/imf-to-scrutinize-3bn-chinese-loan.html, Media Report, including Wikileaks; http://omgghana.com/parliament-approves-850m-loan-gas-infrastructure-project/, Media Report, including Wikileaks; http://global.factiva.com/aa/?ref=IOD0000020110820e78f00002&pp=1&fcpil=en&napc=S&sa_from=, Media Report, including Wikileaks; http://gas.in-en.com/html/gas-17401740231105276.html, Media Report, including Wikileaks; http://africanspotlight.com/blog/2011/08/12/ghana-secures-800-million-gas-loan-from-china/, Media Report, including Wikileaks; http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=ff847bae-a2e3-4194-a879-c216fe4137d3%40sessionmgr198&vid=2&hid=121, Other; http://www.mofep.gov.gh/sites/default/files/reports/CDB_Loan_Summary_050112.pdf, Other; http://www.mofep.gov.gh/sites/default/files/reports/CDB_Loan_Summary_050112.pdf, Other; http://search.proquest.com.gate2.library.lse.ac.uk/docview/1024526540/13E9E9936935407C09A/7?accountid=9630, Other; http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/africa/2013-04/27/c_124638021.htm, Media Report, including Wikileaks; http://business.myjoyonline.com/pages/news/201306/108563.php, Media Report, including Wikileaks; http://www.ghanabusinessnews.com/2013/06/26/ghana-opts-for-bridge-financing-as-chinese-funds-delay-for-gas-project/, Media Report, including Wikileaks; http://www.gbcghana.com/index.php?id=1.1425564, Media Report, including Wikileaks; http://www.mofep.gov.gh/?q=news/220910, Government Source (Donor/Recipient); http://danquahinstitute.org/docs/CDB_cabinet_memo_CDB%20facility_consolidated%20draft%20final.pdf, Government Source (Donor/Recipient); http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/africa/2014-01/08/c_133026234.htm, Media Report, including Wikileaks; http://thinkafricapress.com/economy/risky-business-china-wavering-africa-ghana-drc-gabon?utm_content=buffer2125c&utm_medium=social&utm_source=twitter.com&utm_campaign=buffer, Media Report, including Wikileaks; http://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/NewsArchive/artikel.php?ID=301563, Media Report, including Wikileaks; http://www.fin24.com/International/Ghana-signs-13-bn-in-Chinese-loan-deals-20100922, Media Report, including Wikileaks; http://www.fin24.com/International/Ghana-signs-13-bn-in-Chinese-loan-deals-20100922, Media Report, including Wikileaks; http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1758-5899.12138/full, Academic Journal Article; http://iis-db.stanford.edu/docs/785/CISAC_Thesis_Thompson.pdf, Other Academic (Working Paper, Dissertation); http://iis-db.stanford.edu/docs/785/CISAC_Thesis_Thompson.pdf, Other Academic (Working Paper, Dissertation); http://iis-db.stanford.edu/docs/785/CISAC_Thesis_Thompson.pdf, Other Academic (Working Paper, Dissertation); http://scottishjournal.co.uk/paper/SJASS_Vol.19_No.2.pdf#page=3, Academic Journal Article; http://www.africaneconomicoutlook.org/countries/east-africa/ethiopia/, Other Official Source (non-Donor, non-Recipient); http://uk.reuters.com/article/uk-ghana-china-loans-idUKKBN0FL1WY20140716, Media Report, including Wikileaks; https://cddrl.fsi.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/ghana_loan_case.pdf, Other Academic (Working Paper, Dissertation)

    How do we define a "source"?
    Field Definition

    From the dataset Readme

    Links to all the sources attached to one project.

  • sources_count

    42

    Field Definition

    From the dataset Readme

    Number of sources attached to one project.

  • contacts

    Dr Anthony Akoto Oseihas, Former Ghanaian Minster of Finance

    Field Definition

    From the dataset Readme

    Name and position of people who were involved in the project if available.

  • source_triangulation

    15

    Field Definition

    From the dataset Readme

    Rates projects based on the types of sources (media, academic, donor/recipient government, other official, NGO). The source triangulation measure varies from 0 to 19, with higher values representing a project record that draws upon a diverse set of information sources. For more information, see http://china.aiddata.org/content/improving_the_data.

  • field_completeness

    9

    Field Definition

    From the dataset Readme

    Rates projects based on the number of missing data fields critical to understanding the project. It also penalized projects with “Vague” makers like “Vague Official Finance” for flow class or “Vague TBD” for flow type. The field completeness measure varies from 0 to 9; higher values indicate that a higher percentage of the “fields” (i.e. variables such as transaction amount, flow type, and commitment year) for a given project record are complete. For more information, see http://china.aiddata.org/content/improving_the_data.

Other Fields

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  • recipient_cow_code

    452

    Field Definition

    From the dataset Readme

    Code of recipient country according to COW standard

  • recipient_oecd_code

    241

    Field Definition

    From the dataset Readme

    Code of recipient country according to OECD standard

  • recipient_oecd_name

    Ghana

    Field Definition

    From the dataset Readme

    Name of recipient country according to OECD standard

  • recipient_iso3

    GHA

    Field Definition

    From the dataset Readme

    Code of recipient country according to ISO3 standard

  • recipient_iso2

    GH

    Field Definition

    From the dataset Readme

    Code of recipient country according to ISO2 standard

  • recipient_un_code

    288

    Field Definition

    From the dataset Readme

    Code of recipient country according to UN standard

  • recipient_imf_code

    652

    Field Definition

    From the dataset Readme

    Code of recipient country according to IMF standard